In her open letter to Marie-Antoinette, Gouges declared: "I could never convince myself that a princess, raised in the midst of grandeur, had all the vices of baseness... Madame, may a nobler function characterize you, excite your ambition, and fix your attention. If you were less well informed, Madame, I might fear that your individual interests would outweigh those of your sex. In the first act (only the first act and a half remain), Marie-Antoinette is planning defense strategies to retain the crumbling monarchy and is confronted by revolutionary forces, including Gouges herself. Marie-Olympe de Gouges was born Marie Gouzes in Montauban, in southern France, on December 31, 1748. She never married again, calling the institution of marriage "the tomb of trust and love". "[48], Public letters, or pamphlets, were the primary means for the working class and women writers to engage in the public debate of revolutionary France. After the execution of Louis XVI she became wary of Robespierre's Montagnard faction and in open letters criticized their violence and summary assassinations. In the public letter Remarques Patriotique from December 1788 Gouges justified why she is publishing her political thoughts, arguing that "This dream, strange though it may seem, will show the nation a truly civic heart, a spirit that is always concerned with the public good". Thou hast need of a bath... thy death will claim things, and as for myself, the sacrifice of a pure life will disarm the heavens. The one is ceaselessly taken as an example, and the other is eternally the execration of the human race. [39], Gouges penned more than 30 plays, often with a socially critical theme. Republicans discussed civic virtue in terms of patriotic manliness (la vertu mâle et répub-licaine). "[49], French Wikisource has original text related to this article: Olympe de Gouges, Significant civil and political events by year, The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Fatherland, by an Aerial Traveller, France Preserved, or The Tyrant Dethroned, Olympe de Gouges at the Revolutionary tribunal, Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman, 1989 p. 235, Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p. 311, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Society of Revolutionary Republican Women, Women's Petition to the National Assembly, "I Foresaw it All: The Amazing Life and Oeuvre of Olympe de Gouges", Olympe de Gouges, a Daughter of Quercy on her Way to the Panthéon, "Olympe de Gouges's trial and the affective politics of denaturalization in France", A website containing English translations of de Gouges' works, An extensive article about Olympe de Gouges, An excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting),, French people executed by guillotine during the French Revolution, 18th-century French dramatists and playwrights, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 13:44. "[3] Her husband died a year later, and in 1770 she moved to Paris with her son to live with her sister. [20] Olympe's last moments were depicted by an anonymous Parisian who kept a chronicle of events: "Yesterday, at seven o'clock in the evening, a most extraordinary person called Olympe de Gouges who held the imposing title of woman of letters, was taken to the scaffold, while all of Paris, while admiring her beauty, knew that she didn't even know her alphabet.... She approached the scaffold with a calm and serene expression on her face, and forced the guillotine's furies, which had driven her to this place of torture, to admit that such courage and beauty had never been seen before.... That woman... had thrown herself in the Revolution, body and soul. 1783-1793 Theaterstücke, Romane und politische Schriften, die die politische Umsetzung der Aufklärung veranschaulichen. At the end of the 18th century influential political actors such as Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès were not convinced of the case for equality. The square was inaugurated by the mayor of the 3rd arrondissement, Pierre Aidenbaum, along with then first deputy mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo. Women were not granted political rights in revolutionary France, thus Gouges used her pamphlets to enter the public debate and she argued that the debate needed to include the female civic voice. [40] Among other themes she wrote plays on the slave trade, divorce, marriage, debtors' prisons, children's rights, and government work schemes for the unemployed. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(}} Engraved portrait of French feminist and revolutionary Olympe de Gouges . "[7], This was followed by her Contrat Social ("Social Contract," named after a famous work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau), proposing marriage based upon gender equality. In pre-revolutionary France there were no citizens, an author was the subject of the king. November 1793 in Paris) war eine Revolutionärin, Frauenrechtlerin, Schriftstellerin und Autorin von Theaterstücken und Romanen im Zeitalter der Aufklärung. Today she is perhaps best known as an early women's rights advocate who demanded that French women be given the same rights as French men. The actress Véronique Genest read an excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman. Marie Gouze nació en el pueblo de Montauban el 7 de mayo de 1748. The slave protagonist comments on the situation in France "The power of one Master alone is in the hands of a thousand Tyrants who trample the People under foot. Born Marie Gouze in Montauban, France in 1748 to petite-bourgeois parents Anne Olympe Moisset Gouze, a maidservant, and her second husband, Pierre Gouze, a butcher, Marie grew up speaking Occitan (the dialect of the region). Furthermore active citizenship was two-tiered, with those who could vote and those who were fit for public office. Olympe de Gouges schreibt: „Selbstbewusst und selbstlos wie dieser nämliche Mercier wurde ich umso umtriebiger.“ Mercier soll recht behalten. Ihr Geburtsort ist Montauban nahe Toulose in Südfrankreich. 2007 French presidential contender Ségolène Royal expressed the wish that Gouges' remains be moved to the Panthéon. That year a number of women with a public role in politics were executed, including Madame Roland and Marie-Antoinette. Juli 1793 wurde auf der Brücke Saint-Michel in Paris Olympe de Gouges verhaf­tet, als sie zusam­men mit dem Buchhänd­ler-Verle­ger Costard und dem Plaka­tie­rer Trottier ein Plakat anbrin­gen wollte mit dem Titel: „Les trois urnes ou le salut de la patrie, par un voyager aérien“. In 1791, in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, she wrote the Déclaration des droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne ("Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen"). Bild »Christine de Pizan« [M]: PD — Zeichenerklärung: [M] bearbeitet — Lizenztexte: CC BY-SA 3.0 — Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf ›. Olympe de Gouges verfasste in der Zeit von ca. Schreiben im Sinne der Aufklärung Olympe de Gouges nahm sie als Künstlernamen an. The first act ends with Gouges reproving the queen for having seditious intentions and lecturing her about how she should lead her people. De Gouges' Sterbeort … Updated May 15, 2019. [34], After her execution her son Pierre Aubry signed a letter, denying his endorsement for her political legacy. Olympe de Gouges (pronunție franceză: /olɛ̃p də ɡuʒ/; n. 17 mai 1748, Montauban, Franța – d. 3 noiembrie 1793, Paris, Prima Republică Franceză), născută Marie Gouze, a fost o dramaturgă din Franța, activistă politică ale cărei scrieri feministe și aboliționiste au avut o deosebită influență.. Și-a început cariera de dramaturg la începutul anilor 1780. On 6 March 2004, the junction of the Rues Béranger, Charlot, de Turenne, and de Franche-Comté in Paris was proclaimed the Place Olympe de Gouges. [citation needed], In 1788 she published Réflexions sur les hommes nègres, which demanded compassion for the plight of slaves in the French colonies. [8] Gouges did not approve of violent revolution, and published l'Esclavage des Noirs with a preface in 1792, arguing that the slaves and the free people who responded to the horrors of slavery with "barbaric and atrocious torture" in turn justified the behavior of the tyrants. Like men who could not pay the poll tax, children, domestic servants, rural day-laborers and slaves, Jews, actors and hangmen, women had no political rights. Women were by definition not afforded any rights of active citizenship. However, her remains—like those of the other victims of the Reign of Terror—have been lost through burial in communal graves, so any reburial (like that of Marquis de Condorcet) would be only ceremonial. She drew a parallel between colonial slavery and political oppression in France. [10], Gouges opposed the execution of Louis XVI of France (which took place on 21 January 1793), partly out of opposition to capital punishment and partly because she favored constitutional monarchy. A record of her papers which were seized in 1793, at the time of her execution, lists about 40 plays. At the same time, she began writing political pamphlets. [13], Gouges was associated with the Gironde faction, who were targeted by the more radical Montagnard faction. Frequently these pamphlets were intended to stir up public anger. [24] However, Chaumette was a staunch opponent of the Girondins, and had characterised Gouges as unnatural and unrepublican prior to her execution. [17] On 2 November 1793 she wrote to him: "I die, my dear son, a victim of my idolatry for the fatherland and for the people. This posthumous characterisation of Gouges by the political establishment was misleading, as Gouges had no role in founding the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women.